Background: 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activates glucocorticoid locally in liver and fat tissues to aggravate metabolic syndrome. 11β-HSD1 selective inhibitor can be used to treat metabolic syndrome. Curcumin and its derivatives as selective inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 have not been reported. Methodology: Curcumin and its 12 derivatives were tested for their potencies of inhibitory effects on human and rat 11β-HSD1 with selectivity against 11β-HSD2. 200 mg/kg curcumin was gavaged to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome for 2 months. Results and Conclusions: Curcumin exhibited inhibitory potency against human and rat 11β-HSD1 in intact cells with IC50 values of 2.29 and 5.79 μM, respectively, with selectivity against 11β-HSD2 (IC50, 14.56 and 11.92 μM). Curcumin was a competitive inhibitor of human and rat 11β-HSD1. Curcumin reduced serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein levels in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Four curcumin derivatives had much higher potencies for Inhibition of 11β-HSD1. One of them is (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(thiophen-2-yl) penta-1,4-dien-3-one (compound 6), which had IC50 values of 93 and 184 nM for human and rat 11β-HSD1, respectively. Compound 6 did not inhibit human and rat kidney 11β-HSD2 at 100 μM. In conclusion, curcumin is effective for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and four novel curcumin derivatives had high potencies for inhibition of human 11β-HSD1 with selectivity against 11β-HSD2. © 2013 Hu et al.
Hu, G. X., Lin, H., Lian, Q. Q., Zhou, S. H., Guo, J., Zhou, H. Y., … Ge, R. S. (2013). Curcumin as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1: Improving Lipid Profiles in High-Fat-Diet-Treated Rats. PLoS ONE, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049976