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Background: To evaluate residual endoleak and thrombus organisation with shear wave imaging (SWI) after endoleak embolisation through an animal study. Methods: This prospective experimental study involved eight dogs with creation of 16 iliac aneurysms and type I endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Embolisation agents were injected into the sac to seal endoleak. SWI and colour flow Doppler ultrasound (DUS) were performed at implantation, one week, and one and three months after implantation; for three dogs, SWI and DUS were also performed six months after implantation. Digital subtraction angiography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography were performed at sacrifice. Macroscopic and histopathological analyses were processed to identify regions of interest (ROIs) for endoleak, fresh thrombus, organised thrombus and embolisation agent, where SWI elasticity moduli were compared. Results: At sacrifice, nine aneurysms had residual endoleak, while seven were sealed. Ten had a fresh and 15 had an organised thrombus. SWI was able to detect all endoleaks, including two cases undetected with DUS. Elasticity moduli of 0.2 kPa ± 0.1 kPa (mean ± SD), 9.5 kPa ± 3.3 kPa, 48.1 kPa ± 21.3 kPa and 44.9 kPa ± 23.7 kPa were found in the ROIs positioned in endoleaks, fresh thrombi, organised thrombi and embolisation agent, respectively. Elasticity values of endoleak and fresh thrombus were lower than those of organised thrombi and embolisation agent (p < 0.001). Stiffness of fresh thrombus at one week (8.7 kPa ± 3.6 kPa) increased at three months (30.2 kPa ± 13.8 kPa), indicating thrombus maturation (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In a dog model of iliac EVAR, SWI was able to identify endoleak, thrombus maturation and embolising agents after endoleak embolisation.
Bertrand-Grenier, A., Zehtabi, F., Lerouge, S., Alturkistani, H., Kauffmann, C., Bodson-Clermont, P., … Soulez, G. (2018). Shear wave elasticity imaging for residual endoleak and thrombus characterisation after endoleak embolisation following endovascular aneurysm repair: a canine animal study. European Radiology Experimental, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41747-018-0059-0