Exploration and development of high entropy alloys for structural applications

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Abstract

We develop a strategy to design and evaluate high-entropy alloys (HEAs) for structural use in the transportation and energy industries. We give HEA goal properties for low (≤150 °C), medium (≤450 °C) and high (≥1,100 °C) use temperatures. A systematic design approach uses palettes of elements chosen to meet target properties of each HEA family and gives methods to build HEAs from these palettes. We show that intermetallic phases are consistent with HEA definitions, and the strategy developed here includes both single-phase, solid solution HEAs and HEAs with intentional addition of a 2nd phase for particulate hardening. A thermodynamic estimate of the effectiveness of configurational entropy to suppress or delay compound formation is given. A 3-stage approach is given to systematically screen and evaluate a vast number of HEAs by integrating high-throughput computations and experiments. CALPHAD methods are used to predict phase equilibria, and high-throughput experiments on materials libraries with controlled composition and microstructure gradients are suggested. Much of this evaluation can be done now, but key components (materials libraries with microstructure gradients and high-throughput tensile testing) are currently missing. Suggestions for future HEA efforts are given. © 2014 by the authors.

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Miracle, D. B., Miller, J. D., Senkov, O. N., Woodward, C., Uchic, M. D., & Tiley, J. (2014). Exploration and development of high entropy alloys for structural applications. Entropy, 16(1), 494–525. https://doi.org/10.3390/e16010494

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