The article analyzes the work of practitioners, especially bleeders and surgeons, in nineteenth-century Minas Gerais. Once surgical and medical courses had been established in Brazil, conflicts between academically trained medical workers and folk practitioners intensified. Bleeders and surgeons with no academic training nevertheless remained active in the health area.
Figueiredo, B. G. (1999). Bleeders and surgeons: medical practitioners in nineteenth century Minas Gerais. História, Ciências, Saúde--Manguinhos, 6(2), 277–291. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-59701999000300003