The production of secondary metabolites in tissue culture has been considered as an alternative to the cultivation and harvesting of crops intended for this purpose. The present study was aimed at the growth of callus and production of polyphenolic compound of callus derived from a Maltese indigenous grapevine variety, Gellew za. Callus was inoculated onto plant growth regulators-enriched Murashige Skoog media (MSm) to determine whether polyphenols are produced in vitro as well as to determine the best combination of plant growth regulators needed for the production of these metabolites. From results obtained, it was observed that the best callus production was obtained by auxin-enriched MSm. In fact, indole acetic acid and indole acetic acid /6-benzyl aminopurine enhanced biomass accumulation (3.04 g and 3.39 g) as opposed to the others (<1.97 g). On the other hand, parameters showing the presence of flavonoids (tonality, 3.80), particularly anthocyanins (24.09 mg/kg) and total polyphenols (1.42 mg/g), were optimum in the presence of cytokinins, particularly 6-benzyl aminopurine. Analysis for single polyphenols revealed a high amount a particular stilbene: polydatin (glucoside of resveratrol). Resveratrol and other typical polyphenols, found in mature berries, were also found in significant quantities, while the other polyphenolic compounds were found in minimal quantities. This is the first study to describe the production and composition of polyphenols in Gellew za callus cultures. From the results obtained, it can be seen that this grape tissue is an excellent alternative for the production of polyphenols from the stilbene group, which can be upscaled and exploited commercially.
Bonello, M., Gašić, U., Tešić, Ž., & Attard, E. (2019). Production of stilbenes in callus cultures of the Maltese indigenous grapevine variety, Gellew Za. Molecules, 24(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112112