This paper estimates the effects of extending the school day during elementary school on students’ educational outcomes later in life. The analysis takes place in the context of a large-scale program introduced in 2007 that extended the school day from 4.5 to 8 h in Mexico City's metropolitan area. The identification strategy leverages cohort-by-cohort variation in full-time enrollment in elementary schools. The results indicate that full-time elementary schools have positive and long-lasting effects on students’ performance, increasing high-stakes high school admission test scores by 4.8 percent of a standard deviation. The effects are larger for females than for males. The difference in the effects between males and females of 2.1 percent of a standard deviation represents 16% of the gender gap in the high school admission exam. Moreover, full-time schooling decreases the probability of delays in schooling completion.
Cabrera-Hernández, F., Padilla-Romo, M., & Peluffo, C. (2023). Full-time schools and educational trajectories: Evidence from high-stakes exams. Economics of Education Review, 96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2023.102443