There has been a concerted effort to identify problems computable with quantum technology, which are intractable with classical technology or require far fewer resources to compute. Recently, randomness processing in a Bernoulli factory has been identified as one such task. Here, we report two quantum photonic implementations of a Bernoulli factory, one using quantum coherence and single-qubit measurements and the other one using quantum coherence and entangling measurements of two qubits. We show that the former consumes three orders of magnitude fewer resources than the best-known classical method, while entanglement offers a further fivefold reduction. These concepts may provide a means for quantum-enhanced performance in the simulation of stochastic processes and sampling tasks.
Patel, R. B., Rudolph, T., & Pryde, G. J. (2019). An experimental quantum Bernoulli factory. Science Advances, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau6668