Impact of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA Mutations, PTEN, AREG, EREG expression and skin rash in ≥2nd line cetuximab- based therapy of colorectal cancer patients

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Abstract

Background: To investigate the predictive significance of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutational status, AREG- EREG mRNA expression, PTEN protein expression and skin rash in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab containing salvage chemotherapy. Methods: Primary tumors from 112 mCRC patients were analyzed. The worst skin toxicity during treatment was recorded. Results: KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were present in 37 (33%), 8 (7.2%) and 11 (9.8%) cases, respectively, PTEN was lost in 21 (19.8%) cases, AREG and EREG were overexpressed in 48 (45%) and 51 (49%) cases. In the whole study population, time to tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was significantly lower in patients with KRAS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively) or BRAF (p = 0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively) mutant tumors, downregulation of AREG (p = 0.018 and p = 0.013, respectively) or EREG (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively) and grade 0-1 skin rash (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In KRAS wt patients TTP and OS was significantly lower in patients with BRAF (p = 0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively) mutant tumors, downregulation of AREG (p = 0.021 and p = 0.004, respectively) or EREG (p = 0.0001 and p,0.0001, respectively) and grade 0-1 skin rash (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). TTP was significantly lower in patients with PIK3CA mutations (p = 0.01) or lost PTEN (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed KRAS (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4.3, p<0.0001), BRAF mutation (HR: 5.1, p<0.0001), EREG low expression (HR: 1.6, p = 0.021) and absence of severe/moderate skin rash (HR: 4.0, p<0.0001) as independent prognostic factors for decreased TTP. Similarly, KRAS (HR 2.9, p = 0.01), BRAF mutation (HR: 3.0, p = 0.001), EREG low expression (HR: 1.7, p = 0.021), absecence of severe/moderate skin rash (HR: 3.7, p<0.0001) and the presence of undifferantited tumours (HR: 2.2, p = 0.001) were revealed as independent prognostic factors for decreased OS. Conclusions: These results underscore that KRAS-BRAF mutations and EREG expression can be used as biomarkers to further select patients undergoing anti-EGFR treatment. © 2011 Saridaki et al.

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Saridaki, Z., Tzardi, M., Papadaki, C., Sfakianaki, M., Pega, F., Kalikaki, A., … Souglakos, J. (2011). Impact of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA Mutations, PTEN, AREG, EREG expression and skin rash in ≥2nd line cetuximab- based therapy of colorectal cancer patients. PLoS ONE, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015980

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