Pure hydrogen low-temperature plasma exposure of HOPG and graphene: Graphane formation?

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Abstract

Single- and multilayer graphene and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to a pure hydrogen low-temperature plasma (LTP). Characterizations include various experimental techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. Our photoemission measurement shows that hydrogen LTP exposed HOPG has a diamond-like valence-band structure, which suggests double-sided hydrogenation. With the scanning tunneling microscopy technique, various atomic-scale charge-density patterns were observed, which may be associated with different C-H conformers. Hydrogen-LTPexposed graphene on SiO2 has a Raman spectrum in which the D peak to G peak ratio is over 4, associated with hydrogenation on both sides. A very low defect density was observed in the scanning probe microscopy measurements, which enables a reverse transformation to graphene. Hydrogen-LTP-exposed HOPG possesses a high thermal stability, and therefore, this transformation requires annealing at over 1000°C. © 2012 Eren et al; licensee Beilstein-Institut.

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Eren, B., Hug, D., Marot, L., Pawlak, R., Kisiel, M., Steiner, R., … Meyer, E. (2012). Pure hydrogen low-temperature plasma exposure of HOPG and graphene: Graphane formation? Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 3(1), 852–859. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.3.96

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