The eight members of the FAM83 (FAMily with sequence similarity 83) family of poorly characterised proteins are only present in vertebrates and are defined by the presence of the conserved DUF1669 domain of unknown function at their N-termini. The DUF1669 domain consists of a conserved phospholipase D (PLD)-like catalytic motif. However, the FAM83 proteins display no PLD catalytic (PLDc) activity, and the pseudo-PLDc motif present in each FAM83 member lacks the crucial elements of the native PLDc motif. In the absence of catalytic activity, it is likely that the DUF1669 domain has evolved to espouse novel function(s) in biology. Recent studies have indicated that the DUF1669 domain mediates the interaction with different isoforms of the CK1 (casein kinase 1) family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. In turn, different FAM83 proteins, which exhibit unique amino acid sequences outside the DUF1669 domain, deliver CK1 isoforms to unique subcellular compartments. One of the first protein kinases to be discovered, the CK1 isoforms are thought to be constitutively active and are known to control a plethora of biological processes. Yet, their regulation of kinase activity, substrate selectivity and subcellular localisation has remained a mystery. The emerging evidence now supports a central role for the DUF1669 domain, and the FAM83 proteins, in the regulation of CK1 biology.
Bozatzi, P., & Sapkota, G. P. (2018, June 19). The fam83 family of proteins: From pseudo-plds to anchors for ck1 isoforms. Biochemical Society Transactions. Portland Press Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20160277