The X-ray crystallography station I911-2 at MAXLab II (Lund, Sweden) has been adapted to enable difference small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) data to be recorded. Modifications to the beamline included a customized flow cell, a motorized flow cell holder, a helium cone, a beam stop, a sample stage and a sample delivery system. This setup incorporated external devices such as infrared lasers, LEDs and reaction mixers to induce conformational changes in macromolecules. This platform was evaluated through proof-of-principle experiments capturing light-induced conformational changes in phytochromes. A difference WAXS signature of conformational changes in a plant aquaporin was also demonstrated using caged calcium.
Sharma, A., Berntsen, P., Harimoorthy, R., Appio, R., Sjöhamn, J., Järvå, M., … Neutze, R. (2019). A simple adaptation to a protein crystallography station to facilitate difference X-ray scattering studies. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 52(2), 378–386. https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600576719001900