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Background: Sex differences in outcomes after small artery occlusion (SAO) stroke have not been well described, particularly in a Chinese population. We aimed to assess sex differences in outcomes and related risk factors among patients with SAO. Methods: All consecutive patients with SAO were recruited between May 2005 and September 2014. Clinical features and risk factors were recorded. The mortality, recurrence, and dependency rates at 3 months after stroke were assessed. Results: A total of 2524 patients with SAO were included in this study. There was a higher frequency of mild stroke, current smoking, and alcohol consumption in men than in women. Women were more likely than men to be older, to have diabetes and obesity, and to have higher total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. There were worse outcomes in men than in women at 3 months after stroke (P < 0.05). There were more independent risk factors of poor outcome in men than in women. Older age was a common predictive factor of outcome both in men and in women. In men, low triglyceride levels and high fasting plasma glucose levels were independent risk factors for mortality; in addition, a high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was associated with recurrence. Moreover, in men, moderate and severe stroke, and high total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose levels were risk factors for dependency. A negative association was found between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and risk of mortality and between total cholesterol level and risk of recurrence in women. Conclusions: These findings suggest that it is crucial to control conventional risk factors and fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels among patients with SAO, especially male patients, to reduce the burden of stroke in China.
Qiao, Q., Hong, Y., Zhao, W., Zhou, G., Liu, Q., Ning, X., … An, Z. (2018). Sex differences in outcomes and associated factors among stroke patients with small artery occlusion in China. Biology of Sex Differences, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0194-6