Epidemiology and prognosis of anti-infective therapy in the ICU setting during acute pancreatitis: a cohort study

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Abstract

Background: Recent international guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) recommend limiting anti-infective therapy (AIT) to cases of suspected necrotizing AP or nosocomial extrapancreatic infection. Limited data are available concerning empirical and documented AIT prescribing practices in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for the management of AP. Methods: Using a multicentre, retrospective (2009-2014), observational database of ICU patients admitted for AP, our primary objective was to assess the incidence of AIT prescribing practices during the first 30 days following admission. Secondary objectives were to assess the independent impact of centre characteristics on the incidence of AIT and to identify factors associated with crude hospital mortality in a logistic regression model. Results: In this cohort of 860 patients, 359 (42%) received AIT on admission. Before day 30, 340/359 (95%) AIT patients and 226/501 (45%) AIT-free patients on admission received additional AIT, mainly for intra-abdominal and lung infections. A large heterogeneity was observed between centres in terms of the incidence of infections, therapeutic management including AIT and prognosis. Administration of AIT on admission or until day 30 was not associated with an increased mortality rate. Patients receiving AIT on admission had increased rates of complications (septic shock, intra-abdominal and pulmonary infections), therapeutic (surgical, percutaneous, endoscopic) interventions and increased length of ICU stay compared to AIT-free patients. Patients receiving delayed AIT after admission and until day 30 had increased rates of complications (respiratory distress syndrome, intra-abdominal and pulmonary infections), therapeutic interventions and increased length of ICU stay compared to those receiving AIT on admission. Risk factors for hospital mortality assessed on admission were age (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.03 [1.02-1.05]; p < 0.0001), Balthazar score E (2.26 [1.43-3.56]; p < 0.0001), oliguria/anuria (2.18 [1.82-4.33]; p < 0.0001), vasoactive support (2.83 [1.73-4.62]; p < 0.0001) and mechanical ventilation (1.90 [1.15-3.14]; p = 0.011), but not AIT (0.63 [0.40-1.01]; p = 0.057). Conclusions: High proportions of ICU patients admitted for AP receive AIT, both on admission and during their ICU stay. A large heterogeneity was observed between centres in terms of incidence of infections, AIT prescribing practices, therapeutic management and outcome. AIT reflects the initial severity and complications of AP, but is not a risk factor for death.

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Montravers, P., Kantor, E., Constantin, J. M., Lefrant, J. Y., Lescot, T., Nesseler, N., … Dupont, H. (2019). Epidemiology and prognosis of anti-infective therapy in the ICU setting during acute pancreatitis: a cohort study. Critical Care, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2681-5

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