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Background: Galectin-1, a radioresistance marker, was found in our previous study to be a prognostic factor for cervical cancer. The aim of current study is to determine the prognostic significance of the galectin-1 expression level in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Methods: We included 45 patients with GBM who were treated with maximal safe surgical resection or biopsy alone followed by adjuvant RT of EQD2 (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions) > or = 60 Gy for homogeneous treatment. Paraffin-embedded tissues acquired from the Department of Pathology were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining for galectin-1 expression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results: Patients with weak expression had a better median survival (27.9 months) than did those with strong expression (10.7 months; p = 0.009). We compared characteristics between weak and strong galectin-1 expression, and only the expression level of galectin-3 showed a correlation. The group with weak galectin-1 expression displayed a 3-year OS of 27.3% and a 3-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 27.3%; these values were only 5.9% and 7.6%, respectively, in the group with strong galectin-1 expression (p = 0.009 and 0.020, respectively). Cox regression was used to confirm that the expression level of galectin-1 (weak vs. strong) is a significant factor of OS (p = 0.020) and CSS (p = 0.022). Other parameters, such as the expression level of galectin-3, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance, gender, surgical method, age ≥ 50 years, tumor size, or radiation field were not significant factors. Conclusion: The expression level of galectin-1 affects survival in patients with GBM treated with adjuvant RT. Future studies are required to analyze the effect of other factors, such as O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-promoter methylation status, in patients with weak and strong galectin-1 expression.
Chou, S. Y., Yen, S. L., Huang, C. C., & Huang, E. Y. (2018). Galectin-1 is a poor prognostic factor in patients with glioblastoma multiforme after radiotherapy. BMC Cancer, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4025-2