Factors associated with long-term care certification in older adults: a cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative survey in Japan

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Abstract

Background: Long-term care (LTC) prevention is a pressing concern in ageing societies. To understand the risk factors of LTC, it is vital to consider psychological and social factors in addition to physical factors. Owing to a lack of relevant data, we aimed to investigate the social, physical and psychological factors associated with LTC using large-scale, nationally representative data to identify a high-risk population for LTC in terms of multidimensional frailty. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using anonymised data from the 2013 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Among the 23,730 eligible people aged 65 years or older and those who were not in hospitals or care facilities during the survey, 1718 stated that they had LTC certification. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with LTC certification. Results: Factors positively associated with LTC certification in the multivariate analyses included older age, the interaction term between sex and age group at age 85–89 years, limb movement difficulties, swollen/heavy feet, incontinence, severe psychological distress (indicated by a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K6] score ≥ 13), regular hospital visits for dementia, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Factors negatively associated with LTC certification included the presence of a spouse, regular hospital visits for hypertension and consulting with friends or acquaintances about worries and stress. Conclusions: In summary, we identified the physical, psychological and social factors associated with LTC certification using nationally representative data. Our findings highlight the importance of the establishment of multidimensional approaches for LTC prevention in older adults.

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Momose, A., Yamaguchi, S., Okada, A., Ikeda-Kurakawa, K., Namiki, D., Nannya, Y., … Kadowaki, T. (2021). Factors associated with long-term care certification in older adults: a cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative survey in Japan. BMC Geriatrics, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02308-5

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