Dystrophin Dp71, the smallest product encoded by the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene, is ubiquitously expressed in all nonmuscle cells. Although Dp71 is involved in various cellular processes, the mechanisms underlying its expression have been little studied. In hepatic cells, Dp71 expression is down-regulated by the xenobiotic β-naphthoflavone. However, the effectors of this regulation remain unknown. In the present study we aimed at identifying DNA elements and transcription factors involved in Dp71 expression in hepatic cells. Relevant DNA elements on the Dp71 promoter were identified by comparing Dp71 5′-end flanking regions between species. The functionality of these elements was demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. Using EMSAs and ChIP, we showed that the Sp1 (specificity protein 1), Sp3 (specificity protein 3) and YY1 (Yin and Yang 1) transcription factors bind to the Dp71 promoter region. Knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and YY1 in hepatic cells increased endogenous Dp71 expression, but reduced Dp71 promoter activity. In summary, Dp71 expression in hepatic cells is carried out, in part, by YY1-, Sp1- and Sp3-mediated transcription from the Dp71 promoter.
Peñuelas-Urquides, K., Becerril-Esquivel, C., Mendoza-de-León, L. C., Silva-Ramírez, B., Dávila-Velderrain, J., Cisneros, B., & Bermúdez De León, M. (2016). Transcription factors YY1, Sp1 and Sp3 modulate dystrophin Dp71 gene expression in hepatic cells. Biochemical Journal, 473(13), 1967–1976. https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20160163
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