Recuperação da agregação de um solo construído em área de mineração de carvão no sul do Brasil com o uso de gramíneas perenes

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Abstract

The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7) and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8). Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m) to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates, organic matter content, bulk density, and macro- and microporosity. The lower values of macroaggregates and MWD in the surface than in the subsurface layer of the reconstructed soil resulted from the high degree of compaction caused by the traffic of heavy machinery on the clay material. After 24 months, all experimental grass treatments showed improvements in soil aggregation compared to the bare reconstructed soil (control), mainly in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, particularly in the two Urochloa treatments (T2 and T4) and Hemarthria altissima (T5). However, the great differences between the treatments with grasses and natural soil (reference) indicate that the recovery of the pre-mining soil structure could take decades.

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Stumpf, L., Pauletto, E. A., Fernandes, F. F., Suzuki, L. E. A. S., da Silva, T. S., Pinto, L. F. S., & de Lima, C. L. R. (2014). Recuperação da agregação de um solo construído em área de mineração de carvão no sul do Brasil com o uso de gramíneas perenes. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Do Solo, 38(1), 327–335. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832014000100033

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