OBJECTIVE: Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a viral RNA sensor induced by SARS-CoV-2. Similarities have been reported between the clinical presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and anti-MDA5 antibody-positive interstitial lung disease (anti-MDA5-ILD). However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are associated with anti-MDA5-ILD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with anti-MDA5-ILD admitted to our hospital between April 2017 and March 2022. In addition, we investigated the clinical presentations of patients who developed anti-MDA5-ILD after vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. We also examined the annual number of anti-MDA5-ILD cases before and after the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. RESULTS: Nine patients with anti-MDA5-ILD were seen during the study period, of whom 4 developed anti-MDA5-ILD between August and October 2021, approximately 6 to 12 weeks after vaccination with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and a few months after the rapid mRNA COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Japan. None of the 4 patients had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The difference in the annual number of anti-MDA5-ILD cases before vs after the COVID-19 vaccination campaign (1.25 ± 0.96 cases/yr vs 4.0 cases/yr) was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: We encountered 4 cases of anti-MDA5-ILD after COVID-19 vaccination. Further large population studies are needed to clarify the relationship between anti-MDA5-ILD and vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.
Kitajima, T., Funauchi, A., Nakajima, T., Marumo, S., Imura, Y., & Fukui, M. (2022). Antimelanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 Antibody-Positive Interstitial Lung Disease After Vaccination With COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines. The Journal of Rheumatology, 49(10), 1158–1162. https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.220259