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Background: Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS), a disease of the elderly, frequently coexists with concomitant diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) which amplifies the cardiovascular (CV) risk. T2DM affects left ventricular (LV) structure and function via hemodynamic and metabolic factors. In concentric LV geometry, typical for AS, indices of LV midwall mechanics are better estimates of LV function than ejection fraction (EF). Effects of T2DM coexisting with AS on circumferential LV midwall systolic function and large artery properties have not been reported so far. Our aim was to compare characteristics of AS patients with and without T2DM, with a focus on LV midwall systolic function and arterial compliance. Methods: Medical records of 130 electively hospitalized patients with moderate or severe isolated degenerative AS were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion criteria included clinical instability, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease and relevant non-cardiac diseases. From in-hospital echocardiography and blood pressure, we calculated LV midwall fractional shortening (mwFS), circumferential end-systolic LV wall stress (cESS) and valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva), estimates of LV afterload, as well as systemic arterial compliance. Results: Patients with (n = 50) and without T2DM (n = 80) did not differ in age, AS severity, LV mass and LV diastolic diameter. T2DM patients exhibited elevated cESS (247 ± 105 vs. 209 ± 84 hPa, p = 0.025) and Zva (5.8 ± 2.2 vs. 5.1 ± 1.8 mmHg per mL/m2, p = 0.04), and lower stroke volume index (33 ± 10 vs. 38 ± 12 mL/m2, p = 0.01) and systemic arterial compliance (0.53 ± 0.16 vs. 0.62 ± 0.22 mL/m2 per mmHg, p = 0.01). mwFS (11.9 ± 3.9 vs. 14.1 ± 3.7%, p = 0.001), but not EF (51 ± 14 vs. 54 ± 13%, p = n.s.), was reduced in T2DM. mwFS and cESS were inversely interrelated in patients both with (r =-0.59, p < 0.001) and without T2DM (r =-0.53, p < 0.001) By multiple regression, higher cESS (p < 0.001) and T2DM (p = 0.02) were independent predictors of depressed mwFS. Conclusions: In AS, coexistent T2DM appears associated with reduced systemic arterial compliance and LV dysfunction at the midwall level, corresponding to slightly depressed myocardial contractility.
Czestkowska, E., Rozanowska, A., Długosz, D., Bolt, K., Świerszcz, J., Kruszelnicka, O., … Surdacki, A. (2019). Depressed systemic arterial compliance and impaired left ventricular midwall performance in aortic stenosis with concomitant type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0894-1