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Background: One of the most common bacteria responsible for most Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is Propionibacterium acnes. Even though the rate of infections in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty is increasing, effective diagnostic tests and the precautions taken during the surgery are not yet adequate. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis in PJI in shoulder replacement and to provide health workers with the best approach to the use of antimicrobial agents based on currently available clinical evidence. Methods: a systematic review of the literature was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Studies concerning the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis in the prevention of PJI in patients undergoing shoulder replacement were included. Results: Seven studies were included in the final analysis because they were considered valid. A total of 3272 patients underwent a surgical procedure, most of which were males. The male population has a greater presence of hair, therefore a greater risk of P. acnes. in surface cultures. Patients were assessed at an average follow-up period of 20 months ranging from 9 weeks to 53 months. Conclusion: The optimal perioperative antimicrobial regimen is controversial. The clinical guidelines recommend the use of only one antibiotic as prophylaxis but considering the increase in the rates of antibiotic-resistant infections, the question arises whether antibiotic prophylaxis should be extended for adequate coverage. Shoulder arthroplasty performed on the male population must be carefully checked after surgery for the possible presence of P. Acnes.
Longo, U. G., Candela, V., Facchinetti, G., Marchetti, A., Dsoke, S., Mazzella, C., … Denaro, V. (2020). Antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and revision shoulder replacement: A systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03332-z