Risk and protective factors for the development of chronic diseases in a rural elderly population in Rio Grande do Sul

  • Focchesatto A
  • Rockett F
  • Perry I
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Abstract

Objective : to verify risk and protective factors for the development of chronic diseases among elderly persons living in the rural area of Linha Senador Ramiro, in Nova Bassano, Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: a cross-sectional censitary-based study was conducted of 70 male and female subjects aged 60 years or over. The subjects were interviewed through a questionnaire and anthropometrically evaluated (weight, height and waist circumference (WC)). The risk factors considered were: smoking, excess weight, intake of saturated fat, physical inactivity and excessive alcohol consumption. The protective factors were: physical activity during leisure time, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and cancer prevention. Results: the population was composed of 70 elderly persons, with a mean age of 70.4 ± 7.8 years. A total of 65.7% of the sample were women, 57.1% considered their health "normal", 72.3% said they were not sedentary and, among women, 78.3 and 47.8% performed mammography and Pap screening, respectively. The prevalence of excess weight was 55.9% and 76.5% of individuals were at increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, according to waist circumference. Hypertension was the most prevalent chronic disease (64.3%). The prevalence of daily consumption of vegetables and fruit was 85.7% and 68.6%, respectively; wine, 54.3%, pork fat and queijo colonial (a local cheese) 75.7%, respectively, and homemade bread 87.1%. A total of 7.1% of the population said they smoked. Conclusions: the risk factors identified were high intake of saturated fat, excess weight and a high waist circumference. The protective factors were regular consumption of fruit and vegetables, low rates of physical inactivity and smoking, regular and moderate consumption of wine and preventive examinations. Further studies can assess the true association of these factors with the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.Objetivo : verificar a prevalência de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas em idosos rurais da Linha Senador Ramiro, no município de Nova Bassano, Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos : estudo transversal de base censitária com 70 indivíduos com idade igual a 60 anos ou mais, de ambos os sexos, entrevistados por meio de questionário e avaliados por antropometria (peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura). Fatores de risco considerados: hábito de fumar, excesso de peso, consumo de alimentos, fonte de gordura saturada, sedentarismo e consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas. Fatores de proteção: prática de atividade física no lazer, consumo de frutas e hortaliças e prevenção de câncer. Resultados: a população foi constituída por 70 idosos, com idade média de 70,4±7,8 anos, 65,7% mulheres, sendo que 57,1% consideravam sua saúde regular, 72,3% relatavam não ser sedentários e, entre as mulheres, 78,3 e 47,8% realizavam mamografia e citopatológico de útero, respectivamente. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi de 55,9%, 76,5% apresentavam risco aumentado para doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas segundo a circunferência da cintura. A hipertensão arterial foi a doença crônica mais prevalente (64,3%). A prevalência de consumo diário de vegetais e frutas foi de 85,7% e 68,6%, respectivamente; de vinho, 54,3%; de banha de porco, 75,7%; queijo colonial, 75,7% e pão caseiro, 87,1%. O tabagismo foi relatado por 7,1% da população. Conclusões : os fatores de risco detectados foram o elevado consumo de gordura saturada, excesso de peso e elevada circunferência da cintura. Já os de proteção, foram o consumo regular de frutas e verduras, baixo sedentarismo e tabagismo, consumo moderado e regular de vinho e realização de exames preventivos. Pesquisas prospectivas poderão avaliar a real associação destes fatores com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares.

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Focchesatto, A., Rockett, F. C., & Perry, I. D. S. (2015). Risk and protective factors for the development of chronic diseases in a rural elderly population in Rio Grande do Sul. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 18(4), 779–795. https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-9823.2015.14150

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