Urogenital fascia anatomy study in the inguinal region of 10 formalin-fixed cadavers: new understanding for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

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Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the urogenital fascia (UGF) anatomy in the inguinal region, to provide anatomical guidance for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR). Methods: The anatomy was performed on 10 formalin-fixed cadavers. The peritoneum and its deeper fascial tissues were carefully dissected. Results: The UGF’s bilateral superficial layer extended and ended in front of the abdominal aorta. At the posterior axillary line, the superficial layer medially reversed, with extension represented the UGF's deep layer. The UGF's bilateral deep layer medially extended beside the vertebral body and then continued with the transversalis fascia. The ureters, genital vessels, and superior hypogastric plexus moved between both layers. The vas deferens and spermatic vessels, ensheathed by both layers, moved through the deep inguinal ring. From the deep inguinal ring to the midline, the superficial layer extended to the urinary bladder’s posterior wall, whereas the deep layer extended to its anterior wall. Both layers ensheathed the urinary bladder and extended along the medial umbilical ligament to the umbilicus and in the sacral promontory, extended along the sacrum, forming the presacral fascia. The superficial layer formed the rectosacral fascia at S4 sacral vertebra, and the deep layer extended to the pelvic diaphragm, terminating at the levator ani muscle. Conclusion: The UGF ensheaths the kidneys, ureters, vas deferens, genital vessels, superior hypogastric plexus, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urinary bladder. This knowledge of the UGF’s anatomy in the inguinal region will help find correct LIHR targets and reduce bleeding and other complications.

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Li, Y., Qin, C., Yan, L., Tong, C., Qiu, J., Zhao, Y., … Wang, X. (2021). Urogenital fascia anatomy study in the inguinal region of 10 formalin-fixed cadavers: new understanding for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. BMC Surgery, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01287-z

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