Silver nanoparticle exposure causes pulmonary structural damage and mitochondrial dynamic imbalance in the rat: Protective effects of sodium selenite

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Abstract

Background: With the increased application of Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), its potential concerns to the health of human beings remain to be defined. This study aims to explore the harmful effects of AgNP on lung tissue in animals and to examine the mechanisms of protection achieved by sodium selenite. Methods: Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were exposed to AgNP (200 μL,1mg/mL) through a single intratracheal instillation. Sodium selenite (0.2mg/kg) was i.p. injected. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured using a spectrophotometer. Histological outcomes and ultrastructural changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and electronic microscopy. Caspases and mitochondrial fission and fusion markers were measured by Western blotting. Results: The histopathologic findings showed that AgNP significantly increased the thickness of alveolar septa, accumulation of macrophage, and the formation of pulmonary bullae and pulmonary consolidation. Ultrastructural studies showed localization of AgNP inside the mitochondria, hyperplasia and vacuolation of type I and type II alveolar cells, lysis of osmiophilic lamellar bodies, and swollen of the mitochondria. AgNP elevated MDA and reduced GSH levels. AgNP activated caspases-3, increased mitochondrial fission markers Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and phospho-Drp1(p-Drp1), and decreased fusion proteins optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) and mitofusins 2 (Mfn2). Treatment with sodium selenite for 7 days corrected the AgNP-caused alterations in morphological, ultrastructural, oxidative stress, caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dynamic imbalance. Conclusion: We conclude that the exposure of AgNP causes lung tissue damage by enhances oxidative stress, activates caspases-3, and triggers mitochondrial dynamic imbalance towards fission. Sodium selenite effectively detoxifies the AgNP-induced damage to the lung tissue by preventing the above alterations.

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Ma, W., He, S., Ma, H., Jiang, H., Yan, N., Zhu, L., … Jia, S. (2020). Silver nanoparticle exposure causes pulmonary structural damage and mitochondrial dynamic imbalance in the rat: Protective effects of sodium selenite. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 15, 633–645. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S232986

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