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Background: Although socio-environmental factors which may affect dementia have widely been studied, the mortality of dementia and socio-environmental relationships among older adults have seldom been discussed. Method: A retrospective, observational study based on territory-wide register-based data was conducted to evaluate the relationships of four individual-level social measures, two community-level social measures, six short-term (temporally varying) environmental measures, and four long-term (spatially varying) environmental measures with dementia mortality among older adults in a high-density Asian city (Hong Kong), for the following decedents: (1) all deaths: age >= 65, (2) “old-old”: age > = 85, (3) “mid-old”: aged 75–84, and (4) “young-old”: aged 65–74. Results: This study identified 5438 deaths (3771 old-old; 1439 mid-old; 228 young-old) from dementia out of 228,600 all-cause deaths among older adults in Hong Kong between 2007 and 2014. Generally, regional air pollution, being unmarried or female, older age, and daily O3 were associated with higher dementia mortality, while more urban compactness and greenness were linked to lower dementia mortality among older adults. Specifically, being unmarried and the age effect were associated with higher dementia mortality among the “old-old”, “mid-old” and “young-old”. Regional air pollution was linked to increased dementia mortality, while urban compactness and greenness were associated with lower dementia mortality among the “old-old” and “mid-old”. Higher daily O3 had higher dementia mortality, while districts with a greater percentage of residents whose native language is not Cantonese were linked to lower dementia mortality among the “old-old”. Economic inactivity was associated with increased dementia mortality among the “young-old”. Gender effect varied by age. Conclusion: The difference in strengths of association of various factors with dementia mortality among different age groups implies the need for a comprehensive framework for community health planning. In particular, strategies for air quality control, usage of greenspace and social space, and activity engagement to reduce vulnerability at all ages are warranted.
Ho, H. C., Fong, K. N. K., Chan, T. C., & Shi, Y. (2020). The associations between social, built and geophysical environment and age-specific dementia mortality among older adults in a high-density Asian city. International Journal of Health Geographics, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12942-020-00252-y