Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil)

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Abstract

High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume o500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, Po0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

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Rodrigues, S. L., Souza Júnior, P. R., Pimentel, E. B., Baldo, M. P., Malta, D. C., Mill, J. G., & Szwarcwald, C. L. (2015). Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 48(8), 728–735. https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X20154455

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