Enhanced bactericidal effect of ceftriaxone drug encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carrier against gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria: Drug formulation, optimization, and cell culture study

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Abstract

Background: Ceftriaxone is one of the most common types of antibiotics used to treat most deadly bacterial infections. One way to alleviate the side effects of medication is to reduce drug consumption by changing the ordinary drug forms into nanostructured forms. In this study, a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) containing hydrophilic ceftriaxone sodium drug is developed, and its effect on eliminating gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli death is investigated. Methods: Double emulsion solvent evaporation method is applied to prepare NLC. Mathematical modeling based on the solubility study is performed to select the best materials for NLC preparation. Haftyzer-Van Krevelen and Hoy's models are employed for this purpose. Drug release from optimized NLC is examined under in vitro environment. Then, the efficacy of the optimized sample on eliminating gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli is investigated. Results: Mathematical modeling reveals that both methods are capable of predicting drug encapsulation efficiency trends by chaining solid and liquid lipids. However, Haftyzer-Van Krevelen's method can precisely predict the particle size trend by changing the surfactant types in water and oily phases of emulsions. The optimal sample has a mean particle size of 86 nm and drug entrapment efficiency of 83%. Also, a controlled drug release in prepared nanostructures over time is observed under in-vitro media. The results regarding the effectiveness of optimized NLC in killing Escherichia coli bacteria suggests that by cutting drug dosage of the nanostructured form in half, an effect comparable to that of free drug can be observed at longer times. Conclusion: Results confirm that NLC structure is an appropriate alternative for the delivery of ceftriaxone drug with a controlled release behavior.

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Ebrahimi, S., Farhadian, N., Karimi, M., & Ebrahimi, M. (2020). Enhanced bactericidal effect of ceftriaxone drug encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carrier against gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria: Drug formulation, optimization, and cell culture study. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-0690-4

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