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Background: The ability of an intermittent fasting (IF)-calorie restriction (CR) regimen (with or without liquid meals) to modulate adipokines in a way that is protective against coronary heart disease (CHD) has yet to be tested. Objective. Accordingly, we examined the effects of an IFCR diet on adipokine profile, body composition, and markers of CHD risk in obese women. Methods. Subjects (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet for 10 weeks. Results: Greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference were noted in the IFCR-L group (4 1 kg; 6 1 cm) versus the IFCR-F group (3 1 kg; 4 1 cm). Similar reductions (P < 0.0001) in fat mass were demonstrated in the IFCR-L (3 1 kg) and IFCR-F group (2 1 kg). Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 10%; 20 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 3%; 7 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01) in the IFCR-L group only. The proportion of small LDL particles decreased (P < 0.01) in both groups. Adipokines, such as leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IFCR with a liquid diet favorably modulates visceral fat and adipokines in a way that may confer protection against CHD. © 2012 Kroeger et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kroeger, C. M., Klempel, M. C., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J. F., Tangney, C. C., & Varady, K. A. (2012). Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations. Nutrition and Metabolism, 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-9-98