Poliomyelitis eradication in four stages

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Abstract

This article's objective is to review the "state of the art" in the progress, obstacles, and strategies for achieving global polio eradication. Poliomyelitis control measures began in the 1960s with the advent of two vaccines, the oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). From 1985 to 2020, strategies were implemented to reach the goal of eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV). Following the success with the interruption of indigenous WPV transmission in the Americas, the goal of global eradication was launched. We describe the process of eradication in four historical stages: (1) The advent of the inactivated and oral polio vaccines launched the age of poliomyelitis control; (2) The massive and simultaneous use of OPV had a significant impact on WPV transmission in the late 1970s in Brazil; (3) Domestic and international public policies set the goal of eradication of indigenous WPV transmission in the Americas and defined the epidemiological strategies to interrupt transmission; and (4) The implementation of eradication strategies interrupted indigenous WPV transmission in nearly all regions of the world except Pakistan and Afghanistan, where in 2020 the WPV1 transmission chains have challenged the strategies for containment of the virus. Meanwhile, the persistence and dissemination of circulation of OPV-derived poliovirus in countries with low vaccination coverage, plus the difficulties in replacing OPV with IPV, are currently the obstacles to eradication in the short term. Finally, we discuss the strategies for overcoming the obstacles and challenges in the post-eradication era.

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De Souza Verani, J. F., & Laender, F. (2020, October 1). Poliomyelitis eradication in four stages. Cadernos de Saude Publica. Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00145720

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