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Background: Validated clinical prediction models to identify children with poor prognosis at the time of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) diagnosis would be very helpful for tailoring treatments, and avoiding under-or over-treatment. Our objective was to externally validate Nordic clinical prediction models in Canadian patients with JIA. Methods: We used data from 513 subjects at the 3-year follow-up from the Research in Arthritis in Canadian Children emphasizing Outcomes (ReACCh-Out) cohort. The predicted outcomes were non-achievement of remission, severe disease course, and functional disability. The Nordic models were evaluated exactly as published and after fine-tuning the logistic regression coefficients using multiple data splits of the Canadian cohort. Missing data was handled with multiple imputation, and prediction ability was assessed with C-indices. C-index values > 0.7 were deemed to reflect helpful prediction. Results: Overall, 81% of evaluable patients did not achieve remission off medications, 15% experienced a severe disease course, and 38% reported disability (CHAQ score > 0). The Nordic model for predicting non-achievement of remission had a C-index of 0.68 (95% CI 0.62-0.74), and 0.74 (0.67-0.80) after fine-tuning. For prediction of severe disease course, it had a C-index of 0.69 (0.61-0.78), and 0.79 (0.68-0.91) after fine-tuning. The fine-tuned Nordic model identified 85% of the cohort as low risk for a severe disease course (< 20% chance) and 7% as high risk (> 60% chance). The Nordic model to predict functional disability had a C-index of 0.57 (0.50-0.63), and 0.51 (0.39-0.63) after fine-tuning. Conclusions: Fine-tuned Nordic models, combining active joint count, physician global assessment of disease activity, morning stiffness, and ankle involvement, predicted well non-achievement of remission and severe disease course in Canadian patients with JIA. The Nordic model for predicting disability could not predict functional disability in Canadian patients.
Henrey, A., Rypdal, V., Rypdal, M., Loughin, T., Nordal, E., & Guzman, J. (2020). Validation of prediction models of severe disease course and non-achievement of remission in juvenile idiopathic arthritis part 2: Results of the Nordic model in the Canadian cohort. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-019-2091-8