Evaluation of racial and ethnic disparities in cardiac transplantation

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic disparities contribute to differences in access and outcomes for patients undergoing heart transplantation. We evaluated contemporary outcomes for heart transplantation stratified by race and ethnicity as well as the new 2018 allocation system. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult heart recipients from 2011 to 2020 were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing database and stratified into 3 groups: Black, Hispanic, and White. We analyzed recipient and donor characteristics, and outcomes. Among 32 353 patients (25% Black, 9% Hispanic, 66% White), Black and Hispanic patients were younger, more likely to be women and have diabetes mellitus or renal disease (all, P<0.05). Over the study period, the proportion of Black and Hispanic patients listed for transplant increased: 21.7% to 28.2% (P=0.003) and 7.7% to 9.0% (P=0.002), respectively. Compared with White patients, Black patients were less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.87; CI, 0.84– 0.90; P<0.001), but had a higher risk of post-transplant death (aHR, 1.14; CI, 1.04–1.24; P=0.004). There were no differences in transplantation likelihood or post-transplant mortality between Hispanic and White patients. Following the allocation system change, transplantation rates increased for all groups (P<0.05). However, Black patients still had a lower likelihood of transplantation than White patients (aHR, 0.90; CI, 0.79– 0.99; P=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Although the proportion of Black and Hispanic patients listed for cardiac transplantation have increased, significant disparities remain. Compared with White patients, Black patients were less likely to be transplanted, even with the new allocation system, and had a higher risk of post-transplantation death.

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APA

Chouairi, F., Fuery, M., Clark, K. A., Mullan, C. W., Stewart, J., Caraballo, C., … Miller, P. E. (2021). Evaluation of racial and ethnic disparities in cardiac transplantation. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(17). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.021067

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