The effect of nutrients and dietary supplements on sperm quality parameters: A systematic review andmeta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

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Abstract

Infertility, which affects ~15% of the world's population, is a global public health issue recognized by the WHO. Therefore, it is of major clinical and public health importance to investigate whether modifiable lifestyle factors-such as stress, drug use, smoking, alcohol intake, and diet- may influence human fertility. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from the MEDLINE-PubMed database was conducted to assess the effect of nutrients, dietary supplements, or food on sperm quality parameters. In total, 28 articles were included for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitativemeta-analysis. Total spermconcentrations [expressed asmean differences (MDs); 95% CIs, in spermatozoa (spz)/mL] were increased by selenium (3.91 × 106 spz/mL; 3.08, 4.73 spz/mL), zinc (1.48 × 106 spz/mL; 0.69, 2.27 spz/mL), omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (10.98×106 spz/mL; 10.25, 11.72 spz/mL), and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (5.93×106 spz/mL; 5.36, 6.51 spz/mL). Spermcounts were increased by ω-3 fatty acids (18.70 × 106 spz/mL; 16.89, 20.51 spz/mL) and CoQ10 supplementation (10.15 × 106 spz/mL; 8.34, 11.97 spz/mL). Sperm total motility was increased by selenium (3.30%; 2.95%, 3.65%), zinc (7.03%; 6.03%, 8.03%), ω-3 fatty acids (7.55%; 7.09%, 8.01%), CoQ10 (5.30%; 4.98%, 5.62%), and carnitines (7.84%; 6.54%, 9.13%), whereas sperm progressive motility was increased only after supplementation with carnitines (7.45%; 6.24%, 8.67%). Finally, sperm morphology was enhanced by selenium (1.87%; 1.50%, 2.24%), ω-3 fatty acid (0.91%; 0.69%, 1.13%), CoQ10 (1.06%; 0.72%, 1.41%), and carnitine (4.91%; 3.68%, 6.15%) supplementation. This meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that some dietary supplements could beneficially modulate sperm quality parameters and affect male fertility. However, results must be cautiously interpreted due to the limited sample size of the meta-analyzed studies and the considerable observed interstudy heterogeneity. The present study and the corresponding search protocol were registered at the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42017058380.

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Salas-Huetos, A., Rosique-Esteban, N., Becerra-Tomás, N., Vizmanos, B., Bulló, M., & Salas-Salvadó, J. (2018, November 1). The effect of nutrients and dietary supplements on sperm quality parameters: A systematic review andmeta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Advances in Nutrition. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ADVANCES/NMY057

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