Healthcare workers' perspectives on healthcare-associated infections and infection control practices: A video-reflexive ethnography study in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia

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Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a global public health problem. For the fulfillment of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030, the promotion of preventive care medicine through HAI management is a crucial issue. This study explores the perspectives of Saudi tertiary healthcare workers (HCWs) on HAIs and infection control measures. Methods: Quantitative data were assessed to determine HCWs' knowledge of HAI and their attitudes towards and practice of infection control measures. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect qualitative data from 40 doctors and nurses. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Further, routine sterile procedures in the wards and intensive care units were video recorded, and the footage was discussed by the infection control team and the personnel involved in the videos. This discussion was videographed and transcribed. Both interview data and reflective discussion of the video were analysed using thematic analysis. The quantitative data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression analysis. Results: Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no difference in mean knowledge, attitude, or practice scores between nurses/ doctors or the genders. There was a significant difference in knowledge score and practice scores between the Intensive care unit & the Paediatric ward /infection control department with the maximum scores in knowledge and practice among participants from the intensive care unit. Logistic regression analysis for dependent variables (knowledge and attitude) and independent variables like age, gender, designation, and departments was not significant. The qualitative data yielded four themes: knowledge of HAI and infection control, infection control measures in practice, a shortfall in infection control measures and HAI, and required implementation. Video-reflexive ethnography (VRE) revealed lapses in handwashing practice and proper usage of personal protective equipment (PPE), especially surgical masks. Conclusion: Early introduction of training programmes in medical and nursing schools and video demonstrations of appropriate infection control practices during sterile procedures would be highly beneficial to HCWs. A possible reason for the outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in this part of Saudi Arabia could be a lapse in PPE usage. Intensive training programs for all the HCWs, strict vigilant protocols, and a willingness to change behaviour and practice, will significantly benefit the spread of outbreaks.




Paul, E., Alzaydani Asiri, I. A., Al-Hakami, A., Chandramoorthy, H. C., Alshehri, S., Beynon, C. M., … Asiri, A. H. (2020). Healthcare workers’ perspectives on healthcare-associated infections and infection control practices: A video-reflexive ethnography study in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 9(1).

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