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BACKGROUND: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for c-stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, patients who respond to CRT are at risk of developing fatal complications such as massive hemoptysis or infection. In such cases, surgery is an alternative option. Currently, there are limited reports on surgery for complications arising during definitive CRT for locally advanced NSCLC. We report a case of hemoptysis after definitive CRT for c-T4N2M0 stage IIIB NSCLC that was successfully treated with lower bilobectomy combined with left atrial resection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man with c-T4N2M0 stage IIIB NSCLC with left atrial invasion developed hemoptysis during CRT, which was discontinued to control hemoptysis. Chest computed tomography revealed a regressed and cavitated tumor. Three weeks after discontinuation of CRT, surgery was performed to avoid fatal complications and secure radicality. We performed lower bilobectomy combined with partial left atrial resection, which was performed using an automatic tri-stapler. The bronchial stump was covered with an omental flap. The resected specimen pathologically showed complete response with fistula between the intermediate bronchus and necrotic cavity in the tumor. His postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was disease free at 10 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully performed surgery after definitive CRT in a patient with c-T4N2M0 stage IIIB NSCLC. Partial left atrial resection was safely performed with an automatic tri-stapler. A complete pathological response to CRT was achieved. In a case with a chance of complete (R0) resection, when the risk of developing fatal complications might outweigh the risk of post-CRT surgery perioperative complications, surgery should be considered as a treatment option.
Yagi, Y., Kodama, K., Momozane, T., Kimura, Y., Takeda, M., & Kishima, H. (2020). Surgery to avoid fatal complications and secure radicality after definitive chemoradiotherapy for clinical T4N2M0 stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: a case report. Surgical Case Reports, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40792-019-0768-5