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Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common malignant hematological disease in the people worldwide. Glaucocalyxin A (GLA) is a bioactive ent-kauranoid diterpenoid, that is derived from Rabdosia japonica var. GLA has been demonstrated that it had various pharmacological activities, such as anti-coagulation, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidant activities. Although GLA has effective anti-tumor properties, its effects on multiple myeloma remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the possible anti-cancer effects of GLA and their molecular mechanisms on MM cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: To evaluate the role of GLA on the proliferation of MM cells in vitro and in vivo, we used MTT method to detect the role of GLA on the proliferation of MM cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle assay were evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein expressions in GLA-treated and untreated MM cells were evaluated by western blot analyses. MM xenograft nude mice model was used to investigate the role of GLA on the proliferation of MM cells in vivo. IHC assay was used to examine the role of GLA on the MM xenograft model in vivo. Results: In the present study, we firstly reported the potent anti-myeloma activity of GLA on MM cells. We found that GLA could induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. GLA could inhibit the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and downregulate interleukin IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in MM. Overexpression of STAT3 could significantly prevent apoptosis induced by GLA; while knockdown of STAT3 enhanced it. Moreover, GLA could inhibit cell proliferation by inducing the cell cycle arrest. GLA reduced the expression of cell cycle-related proteins CCNB1, CCND1, CCND2, and CCND3 and increased the expression of p21 in MM cell lines. In addition, in the MM xenograft nude mice model, GLA exhibited very good anti-myeloma activity. Administration of GLA almost completely inhibited tumor growth within 19 days without physical toxicity. And the IHC results showed GLA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and interfered STAT3 pathway on MM xenograft model tumor tissues. Conclusions: Taken together, our present research indicated that GLA inhibits the MM cell proliferation, induces MM cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through blocking the activation of STAT3 pathway. Thus, GLA may be a potential therapeutic candidate for MM patients in the future.
Li, M., Chen, C., Wang, Q., Jiang, X., Tan, L., Huang, Y., … Zhang, Z. (2021). Glaucocalyxin A suppresses multiple myeloma progression in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting the activation of STAT3 signaling pathway. Cancer Cell International, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02375-z