Background: To date, inefficient delivery of therapeutic doses of radionuclides to solid tumors limits the clinical utility of radioimmunotherapy. We aim to test the therapeutic utility of Yttrium-90 (90Y)-radio-conjugates of a monoclonal antibody, which we showed previously to bind specifically to the abundant intracellular La ribonucleoprotein revealed in dead tumor cells after DNA-damaging treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings: Immunoconjugates of the DAB4 clone of the La-specific monoclonal antibody, APOMAB®, were prepared using the metal chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and then radiolabeled with 90Y. Mice bearing established subcutaneous tumors were treated with 90Y-DOTA-DAB4 alone or after chemotherapy. Non-radiosensitizing cyclophosphamide/etoposide chemotherapy was used for the syngeneic EL4 lymphoma model. Radiosensitizing cisplatin/gemcitabine chemotherapy was used for the syngeneic Lewis Lung carcinoma (LL2) model, and for the xenograft models of LNCaP prostatic carcinoma and Panc-1 pancreatic carcinoma. We demonstrate the safety, specificity, and efficacy of 90Y-DOTA-DAB4-radioimmunotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. EL4 lymphoma-bearing mice either were cured at higher doses of radioimmunotherapy alone or lower doses of radioimmunotherapy in synergy with chemotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy alone was less effective in chemo- and radio-resistant carcinoma models. However, radioimmunotherapy synergized with radiosensitizing chemotherapy to retard significantly tumor regrowth and so prolong the survival of mice bearing LL2, LNCaP, or Panc-1 subcutaneous tumor implants. Conclusions/Significance: We report proof-of-concept data supporting a unique form of radioimmunotherapy, which delivers bystander killing to viable cancer cells after targeting the universal cancer antigen, La, created by DNA-damaging treatment in neighboring dead cancer cells. Subsequently we propose that DAB4-targeted ionizing radiation induces additional cycles of tumor cell death, which further augments DAB4 binding to produce a tumor-lethal 'genotoxic chain reaction'. Clinically, this approach may be useful as consolidation treatment after a drug-induced cell death among (small-volume) metastatic deposits, the commonest cause of cancer death. This article is part II of a two-part series providing proof-of-concept for the diagnostic and therapeutic use of the DAB4 clone of the La-specific monoclonal antibody, APOMAB®.
Al-Ejeh, F., Darby, J. M., & Brown, M. P. (2009). Chemotherapy synergizes with radioimmunotherapy targeting La autoantigen in tumors. PLoS ONE, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004630