At the end of 2005, an outbreak of fever associated with joint pain occurred in La Réunion. The causal agent, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been known for 50 years and could thus be readily identified. This arbovirus is present worldwide, particularly in India, but also in Europe, with new variants returning to Africa. In humans, it causes a disease characterized by a typical acute infection, sometimes followed by persistent arthralgia and myalgia lasting months or years. Investigations in the La Réunion cohort and studies in a macaque model of chikungunya implicated monocytes-macrophages in viral persistence. In this Review, we consider the relationship between CHIKV and the immune response and discuss predictive factors for chronic arthralgia and myalgia by providing an overview of current knowledge on chikungunya pathogenesis. Comparisons of data from animal models of the acute and chronic phases of infection, and data from clinical series, provide information about the mechanisms of CHIKV infection-associated inflammation, viral persistence in monocytes-macrophages, and their link to chronic signs. © 2012 Dupuis-Maguiraga et al.
Dupuis-Maguiraga, L., Noret, M., Brun, S., Le Grand, R., Gras, G., & Roques, P. (2012). Chikungunya disease: Infection-associated markers from the acute to the chronic phase of arbovirus-induced arthralgia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001446