Deep sequencing was used to determine complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 11 (EV11) strains isolated from a chronically infected patient with CVID as well as from cases of acute enterovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EV11 strains that circulated in Israel in 1980-90s could be divided into four clades. EV11 strains isolated from a chronically infected individual belonged to one of the four clades and over a period of 4 years accumulated mutations at a relatively constant rate. Extrapolation of mutations accumulation curve into the past suggested that the individual was infected with circulating EV11 in the first half of 1990s. Genomic regions coding for individual viral proteins did not appear to be under strong selective pressure except for protease 3C that was remarkably conserved. This may suggest its important role in maintaining persistent infection.
Laassri, M., Zagorodnyaya, T., Hassin-Baer, S., Handsher, R., Sofer, D., Weil, M., … Shulman, L. (2018). Evolution of echovirus 11 in a chronically infected immunodeficient patient. PLoS Pathogens, 14(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006943