Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins synthesized by B-cell clones and by a brain infiltrate of clonal T-cells. The clonal maturation of these lymphocytes takes place in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) developed in the intrathecal compartment. TLO are acquired lymphoid organs able to develop in the vicinity of the inflammatory sites, where they mount a complete antigen-driven immune response. We here review TLO pathophysiology in animal models of MS and human MS. Several pieces of evidence suggest that intrathecal TLO may play a major role in the clinical impairment. Potential therapeutic applications are examined.
Bonnan, M. (2015, January 1). Meningeal tertiary lymphoid organs: Major actors in intrathecal autoimmunity. Revue Neurologique. Elsevier Masson SAS. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002559