Objectives. To assess whether there are shared exposures associated with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS), dry eye syndrome (DES), and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), in order to determine whether they are etiologically related. Methods. In a clinic-based case-control study, 702 participants (91 SS, 120 DES, 211 (age and sex frequency-matched) controls, and 280 B-NHL cases) were recruited and interviewed regarding exposures, medical history, and family history. Results. Female predominance was noted in SS (ratio 9.2: 1). Eye dryness was severest in SS compared to DES and controls (P < 0 001). Compared to controls, alcohol consumption was inversely associated with NHL, DES, and SS (odds ratio OR = 0 47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.71; OR = 0 54, 95% CI: 0.33-0.88; and OR = 0 26, 95% CI: 0.14-0.49, respectively), while a previous history of infection requiring hospitalization was positively associated with all three conditions: NHL (OR = 1 92; 95% CI: 1.23-2.99), DES (OR = 3 29; 95% CI: 1.97-5.47), and SS (OR = 4 74; 95% CI: 2.66-8.44). NHL patients were more likely to report first-degree relatives with hematologic cancer, while having first-degree relatives with an autoimmune disease (AID) was associated with SS (OR = 5 25; 95% CI: 2.59-10.63) and DES (OR = 3 55; 95% CI: 1.83-6.91) compared to controls. Conclusions. Some exposures are associated with all three conditions (such as an inverse association with alcohol consumption and a positive association with serious past infection), while a family history of AID appears to be shared by DES and SS, but not NHL subjects. Shared risk factors for all three conditions indicate possible mutual etiological pathways.
Ben-Eli, H., Aframian, D. J., Ben-Chetrit, E., Mevorach, D., Kleinstern, G., Paltiel, O., & Solomon, A. (2019). Shared medical and environmental risk factors in dry eye syndrome, Sjogren’s syndrome, and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study. Journal of Immunology Research, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9060842