Platelets: New bricks in the building of neutrophil extracellular traps

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Abstract

In addition to being key elements in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets have an important role in the inflammatory and innate immune response. This activity is associated with their capability to recognize pathogens through the expression of toll-like receptors, the secretion of various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors stored within their granules, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules that allows interaction with other immune cells, mainly neutrophils and monocytes. As part of the first line of defense, neutrophils control invading pathogens by phagocytosis, the release of antimicrobial proteins during degranulation, or through the formation of web-like structures named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are formed by chromatin, proteases, and antimicrobial proteins, and their main function is to trap and kill bacteria, virus, and fungi, avoiding their dissemination. Besides microorganisms, NET formation is also triggered by proinflammatory molecules and platelets. The uncontrolled formation of NETs might exert tissue damage and has been involved in a pathogenic mechanism of autoimmune and prothrombotic clinical conditions. In this review, we discuss the role of platelets in NET generation highlighting the mediators, stimuli, and molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, both in human and murine models.

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Carestia, A., Kaufman, T., & Schattner, M. (2016, July 6). Platelets: New bricks in the building of neutrophil extracellular traps. Frontiers in Immunology. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00271

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