Significant differences in FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb genes polymorphism and anti-malarial IgG subclass pattern are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Saudi children

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Abstract

Background: The FcγRs genotypes have been reported to play a key role in the defence against malaria parasites through both cellular and humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between FcγR (IIa, IIIa, and IIIb) genes polymorphism and the clinical outcome for anti‐malarial antibody response of Plasmodium falciparum infection among Saudi children. Methods: A total of 600 volunteers were enrolled in this study, including 200 malaria-free control (MFC) subjects, 218 patients with uncomplicated malaria (UM) and 182 patients with severe malaria (SM). The FcγR genotypes were analysed using PCR amplification methods, and measurements of immunoglobulin were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results: The data revealed that the FcγRIIa-R/R131 showed a statistically significant association with SM patients when compared to UM patients. Furthermore, higher levels of IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 were associated with the FcγRIIa-H/H131 genotype among UM patients. Although the FcγRIIa-F/V176 genotype was not associated with UM, it showed a significant association with severe malaria. Interestingly, the FcγRIIIa-V/V176 genotype offered protection against SM. Moreover, SM patients carrying the FcγRIIIa-F/F genotype showed higher levels of AMA-1-specific IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies. The FcγRIIIb-NA1/NA1 and FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 genotypes did not show significant differences between the UM and the MFC groups. However, the genotype FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 was statistically significantly associated with SM patients. Conclusions: The data presented in this study suggest that the influence of the FcγRIIa-R/R131, FcγRIIIa-F/F176 and FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 genotypes are statistically significantly associated with SM patients. However, the FcγRIIa-H/H13 and FcγRIIIa-V/V176 genotypes have demonstrated a protective effect against SM when compared to UM patients. The impact of the FcyR (IIa, IIIa and IIIb) gene variants and anti-malaria IgG subclasses play an important role in susceptibility to malaria infection and disease outcome in Saudi children.

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Nasr, A., Aljada, A., Hamid, O., Elsheikh, H. A., Masuadi, E., Al-Bawab, A., … Salah, A. M. (2021). Significant differences in FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb genes polymorphism and anti-malarial IgG subclass pattern are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Saudi children. Malaria Journal, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03901-0

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