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Developing employee wellbeing has recently been recognized as an important way to improve organizational performance. Sloan’s (1987) dual-intervention approach suggests that employee wellbeing can be developed bottom-up, by improving employee psychological wellbeing, or top-down by changing the organization. This longitudinal study explores the association between psychological capital (bottom-up factors), organizational virtues (top-down factors), and work happiness.
Williams, P., Kern, M. L., & Waters, L. (2015). A Longitudinal Examination of the Association Between Psychological Capital, Perception of Organizational Virtues and Work Happiness in School Staff. Psychology of Well-Being, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13612-015-0032-0