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Spin-orbit torques, including the Rashba and spin Hall effects, have been widely observed and investigated in various systems. Since interesting spin-orbit torque (SOT) arises at the interface between heavy nonmagnetic metals and ferromagnetic metals, most studies have focused on the ultra-thin ferromagnetic layer with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Here, we measured the effective longitudinal and transverse fields of bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd (1.54 to 2.43 €...nm)/MgO systems using harmonic methods with careful correction procedures. We found that in our range of thicknesses, the effective longitudinal and transverse fields are five to ten times larger than those reported in interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy systems. The observed magnitude and thickness dependence of the effective fields suggest that the SOT do not have a purely interfacial origin in our samples.
Lee, H. R., Lee, K., Cho, J., Choi, Y. H., You, C. Y., Jung, M. H., … Suzuki, Y. (2014). Spin-orbit torque in a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd/MgO system. Scientific Reports, 4. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06548