Predicting pathological response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparing the performance of whole body 18F-FDG PETCT versus DCE-MRI of the breast

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Abstract

Background: With the expansion of the use of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NAC) in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), both dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET CT) are promising methods for assessment of the tumor response during chemotherapy. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DCE-MRI of breast &18 F-FDG PETCT regarding the assessment of early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in locally advanced breast cancer patients (LABC) and pathologic complete response (pCR) prediction. Results: A total of forty LABC patients who had NAC were included in the study. Before and during NAC, PET/CT and DCE-MRI were used. Various morphological and functional criteria were compared and linked with post-operative pathology for both. The MRI sensitivity and specificity in assessing NAC response in conjunction with pathological data were 100% (p = 0.001) and 12.5% (p = 0.18) respectively. The equivalent readings for PET/CT were 94.1% (p = 0.001) and 25% (p = 0.18), respectively, although the estimated total accuracy for both MRI and PETCT was the same measuring 94.1% (p = 0.001) and 25% (p = 0.18) (72%). PETCT had a higher overall accuracy than MRI in assessing the response of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) to NAC (64% and 56%, respectively). Longest diameter of lesion, ADC value, and maximal enhancement in baseline MRI, SUVmax and SUV mean in baseline PETCT were all significant predictors of rCR. Conclusion: During NAC in the primary breast mass and ALN, DCE-MRI demonstrated a better sensitivity in predicting pCR in LABC patients. Although both MRI and PETCT were equally accurate in detecting pCR of LABC patients to NAC, PETCT was more accurate in detecting pathological response of ALN to NAC.

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Sobhi, A., Talaat hamed, S., Hussein, E. shaymaa, Lasheen, S., Hussein, M., & Ebrahim, Y. (2022). Predicting pathological response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparing the performance of whole body 18F-FDG PETCT versus DCE-MRI of the breast. Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, 53(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43055-022-00743-x

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