Two new species from the upper rio Tocantins basin are described in Knodus based on the traditional definition of the genus. The new species are distinguished from other congeners by meristic and morphometric characters, such as the number of cusps in the premaxillary and dentary teeth, the number of scale series between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line, the orbital diameter and the body depth. With the two new species, the number of endemic species in the upper rio Tocantins basin upstream of the mouth of the rio Paranã, rises to 53 (89 to the confluence with rio Araguaia). The existence of a meristic character that changes through ontogeny (allomery), viz. the number of scale series between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line, was detected in some species of Knodus through a regression analysis. Additionally, this paper describes an unambiguous, more informative and precise new method for counting vertebrae, which will enhance the efficacy of this trait in species comparisons.
Deprá, G. de C., Ota, R. R., Júnior, O. B. V., & Ferreira, K. M. (2021). Two new species of knodus (Characidae: Stevardiinae) from the upper rio tocantins basin, with evidence of ontogenetic meristic changes. Neotropical Ichthyology, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0106