Post-treatment outcomes of ceftriaxone versus antistaphylococcal penicillins or cefazolin for definitive therapy of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

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Abstract

Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia is associated with poor outcomes. Ceftriaxone offers logistical advantages over other standard therapies, though in vitro studies have questioned its efficacy and clinical studies of ceftriaxone in MSSA bacteremia are conflicting. We performed a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of adult patients who received ceftriaxone, cefazolin, or antistaphylococcal penicillins as definitive therapy for MSSA bacteremia from 2018 to 2019. Definitive therapy was defined as the antibiotic used in the outpatient setting. Patients were excluded if they received less than 7 days of outpatient therapy. Follow-up started on the date of definitive therapy completion. The primary outcome was 90-day treatment failure, defined as a composite of mortality and microbiologic recurrence. This was analyzed with multivariable Cox regression. A total of 223 patients were included, 37 (16.6%) of whom received ceftriaxone. The most common ceftriaxone dose was 2 g daily (83.8%). The most common primary site of infection was skin/soft tissue (37.2%), unknown (21.1%), and catheter-related (15.2%). Twenty-six (11.7%) developed infective endocarditis. Median total duration of treatment was 31.0 days, and median outpatient duration was 24.0 days. Twenty-six (11.7%) developed 90-day treatment failure. After adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index, duration of therapy, and use of transesophageal echocardiography, definitive treatment with ceftriaxone was associated with treatment failure (hazard ratio 2.66, 95% confidence interval 1.15–6.12; p=0.022). Among patients with MSSA bacteremia, definitive treatment with ceftriaxone was associated with a higher risk of treatment failure within 90 days as compared to cefazolin or antistaphylococcal penicillins.

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Yetmar, Z. A., Khodadadi, R. B., Go, J. R., Chesdachai, S., & Abu Saleh, O. M. (2023). Post-treatment outcomes of ceftriaxone versus antistaphylococcal penicillins or cefazolin for definitive therapy of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 42(4), 423–430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-023-04575-z

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