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Background: Guidewire (GW) size and stenosis dimensions are the two major factors affecting the translesional pressure drop. Studying the combined effect of these parameters on the mean pressure drop (Δp) across the stenosis is of high practical importance.Methods: In this study, time averaged mass and momentum conservation equations are solved analytically to obtain pressure drop-flow, Δp-Q, curves for three different percentage area blockages corresponding to moderate (64%), intermediate (80%), and severe (90%) stenoses. Stenosis is considered to be axisymmetric consisting of three different sections namely converging, throat, and diverging regions. Analytical expressions for pressure drop are obtained for each of these regions separately. Using this approach, effects of lesion length and GW insertion on the mean translesional pressure drop and its component (loss due to momentum change and viscous loss) are analyzed.Results and Conclusion: It is observed that for a given percent area stenosis (AS), increase in the throat length only increases the viscous loss. However, increase in the severity of stenosis and GW insertion increase both loss due to momentum change and viscous loss. GW insertion has greater contribution to the rise in viscous loss (increase by 2.14 and 2.72 times for 64% and 90% AS, respectively) than loss due to momentum change (1.34% increase for 64% AS and 25% decrease for 90% AS). It also alters the hyperemic pressure drop in moderate (48% increase) to intermediate (30% increase) stenoses significantly. However, in severe stenoses GW insertion has a negligible effect (0.5% increase) on hyperemic translesional pressure drop. It is also observed that pressure drop in a severe stenosis is less sensitive to lesion length variation (4% and 14% increase in Δp for without and with GW, respectively) as compared to intermediate (10% and 30% increase in Δp for without and with GW, respectively) and moderate stenoses (22% and 48% increase in Δp for without and with GW, respectively). Based on the contribution of pressure drop components to the total translesional pressure drop, it is found that viscous losses are dominant in moderate stenoses, while in severe stenoses losses due to momentum changes are significant. It is also shown that this simple analytical solution can provide valuable information regarding interpretation of coronary diagnostic parameters such as fractional flow reserve (FFR). © 2011 Rajabi-Jaghargh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Rajabi-Jaghargh, E., Kolli, K. K., Back, L. H., & Banerjee, R. K. (2011). Effect of guidewire on contribution of loss due to momentum change and viscous loss to the translesional pressure drop across coronary artery stenosis: An analytical approach. BioMedical Engineering Online, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-10-51