The effect of COVID-19 vaccinations on menstrual cycle and serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels in reproductive age women

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Abstract

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations on menstrual cycle and ovarian reserve in reproductive aged-women. Health care providers (n = 258) vaccinated with inactivated (CoronaVac) and mRNA based (Pfizer-BioNTech®) COVID-19 vaccines were included. All subjects completed a gynaecological and menstrual history questionnaire and Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) levels were measured in serum samples collected before first vaccination and at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 9th months. The prevalence of new-onset menstrual dysregulation following vaccination was 20.6% and it was statistically significant compared to baseline (p = 0.001). Menstrual pattern turned back to normal in 59.6% of vaccinated women. Serum AMH levels gradually decreased until 6th month of follow-up compared to baseline (p < 0.001). A significant increase in serum AMH level was observed at 9th month of follow-up compared to 6th month follow-up levels (p < 0.001). The decrease in serum AMH level was statistically significant regardless of serum anti SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, subgroups of age, occupation, menstrual dysregulation following vaccination and presence of gynaecological diseases. In conclusion, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 causes a transient decrease on serum AMH levels and moderate irregularities in menstrual pattern increasing with age and is mostly reversible.

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Hasdemir, P. S., Senol Akar, S., Goker, A., Kosova, F., Ucar, D., Ozalp Ates, F. S., & Akcali, S. (2023). The effect of COVID-19 vaccinations on menstrual cycle and serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels in reproductive age women. Human Fertility, 26(1), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/14647273.2023.2181710

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