Adjuvant hysterectomy following primary chemoradiation for stage IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer: a retrospective comparison of complications for open versus minimally invasive surgery

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Abstract

Background: Adjuvant hysterectomy following chemoradiation for bulky, early stage cervical cancer has been shown to decrease local relapse rate. The objective of this study is to compare complications and recurrences between minimally invasive and open adjuvant hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Methods: Patients were identified who had undergone adjuvant hysterectomy following chemoradiation for 2009 FIGO stage IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer from August 2006 to June 2018. Demographic information, treatment course, complications, recurrence data were retrospectively extracted from the medical record. Frequency of complications was compared with Fisher exact test or chi-square test as appropriate and inverse probability of treatment propensity score weighting was used to calculate the disease-free survival. Results: Fifty-four patients met inclusion criteria with a median follow up time of 60.4 months (interquartile range 28.0–98.1 months). There were 24 (44%) open versus 30 (56%) minimally invasive hysterectomies performed. The overall grade 2 or worse complication rate was 43%. There were 8 (27%) patients with complications in the minimally invasive group compared to 4 (17%) in the open group (OR 1.82 (95% CI 0.5–7.0)). There were 9 vaginal cuff defects, dehiscences and/or fistulas in the minimally invasive group compared to 3 in the open group (OR 3.0 (95% CI 0.8–11.2)). There was no statistically significant difference between disease free survival and overall survival among the two groups, however there was a trend towards decreased disease-free survival in the minimally invasive group. Conclusions: Among women undergoing adjuvant hysterectomy following chemoradiation for bulky, early stage cervical cancer, there was no difference in complication rates between an open or minimally invasive surgical approach. However, the overall complication rate was high, including a high rate of vaginal cuff defect, dehiscence and/or fistulas. Our findings suggest that an adjuvant hysterectomy should be reserved for patients in which chemoradiation is not anticipated to successfully treat the primary tumor and, if performed, an open approach should be considered.

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Miller, H., Matsuo, K. M., Roman, L. D., Yessaian, A. A., Pham, H. Q., Hom, M., … Brunette, L. L. (2021). Adjuvant hysterectomy following primary chemoradiation for stage IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer: a retrospective comparison of complications for open versus minimally invasive surgery. Radiation Oncology, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01843-0

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