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Background: Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol found in berries, roots and wine that is well known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The anti-inflammatory effect has been reported for both immune cells and connective tissues, but only few studies have investigated effects on immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. None of which have studied this effect when combining resveratrol with methotrexate or adalimumab, two major drugs in the treatment of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. We therefore aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol alone and in combination with methotrexate or adalimumab in ex vivo models of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. We furthermore aimed to describe any variations in this effect based on disease activity and cellular composition of the synovial fluid infiltrate. Methods: Synovial fluid mononuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7) and spondyloarthritis (n = 7) were cultured for either 48 h or 21 days. In both models, synovial fluid mononuclear cells were treated with resveratrol alone or in combination with methotrexate or adalimumab. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, matrix metalloproteinase 3 and tartrate resistant acidic phosphatase were measured to quantify inflammation, enzymatic degradation and osteoclast differentiation, respectively. Results: Resveratrol reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 production by synovial fluid mononuclear cells significantly (p = 0.005) compared to untreated controls. The effect of resveratrol was greatest in cultures from patients with low disease activity, i.e. DAS28CRP ≤ 3.2 (p = 0.022), and in cultures dominated by lymphocytes (p =0. 03). Further, the combination of methotrexate and resveratrol significantly reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels compared with methotrexate alone in cultures from patients with low disease activity (p = 0.016), and in cultures with high lymphocyte count (p = 0.011). Resveratrol did not significantly affect matrix metalloproteinase 3 and tartrate resistant acidic phosphatase production. Conclusion: Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory properties in our ex vivo model of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. Results show an additive effect of resveratrol, when combined with methotrexate in samples dominated by lymphocytes and samples from patients with low disease activity. This suggests further investigations in vitro and whether this effect may also be present in a clinical setting.
Lomholt, S., Mellemkjaer, A., Iversen, M. B., Pedersen, S. B., & Kragstrup, T. W. (2018). Resveratrol displays anti-inflammatory properties in an ex vivo model of immune mediated inflammatory arthritis. BMC Rheumatology, 2(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41927-018-0036-5